Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 28
  • ItemOpen Access
    SIMONe Peru: deployment and operations
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2020-06) Suclupe, J.; Kuyeng, K.; Milla, Marco; Chau, J.L.; Urco, M.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Vierinen, J.; Erickson, P.
    SIMONe Peru is a modern multistatic specular meteor radar which allows measuring winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) between 70 and 110 km in altitude. Its main objective is to study the atmospheric dynamic in this region. Moreover, the system provides a higher number of detections compared to other systems and gives good statistics from detections in this region. This system started operations on september 2019 in the central coast of Peru. This work presents a general outline of the SIMONe Peru system, as well as the some preliminary results that allow us to operate and monitor it.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring the correlation between ionospheric scintillation and GNSS positioning error near the magnetic equator using machine learning techniques
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2020-06) Fajardo, G.; Pacheco, Edgardo E.
    Ionospheric scintillations are a common phenomenon in the equatorial ionosphere. This phenomenon directly affects the position estimated by GNSS receivers degrading the quality of the radio signals; however, the quantification of the positioning error contributed by the ionosphere over the Peruvian sector has not been studied in detail. In this work, algorithms are being implemented that will allow us to identify and classify amplitude scintillation (S4) levels, we have worked with data from the Huancayo Observatory for the period December 2016-February 2017 obtained from LISN, this data has been plotted to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence, and to analyze the occurrence of S4 as a function of other space weather variables obtained from OMNI2. The machine learning algorithms were decision tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neuronal Network (NN). Decision tree was implemented as a filtering method, support vector machine for clustering and neuronal network to generate time series in forecasting. This paper shows the initial part of an investigation that aims to correlate qualitatively and quantitatively the occurrence of amplitude scintillations (S4) with errors in the position estimation of GNSS receivers, once the correlation between S4 and position error has been quantified, it may be possible to predict the error by predicting S4.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Initial design of a GNU radio interface for the new version of the Jicamarca Acquisition Radar System (JARS 2.0)
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2020-06) Tupac, Isaac; Rojas, John; Verástegui, Joaquín; Espinoza, Juan Carlos; Milla, Marco
    In this poster the initial design of a new software interface to control the novel ethernet based radar acquisition system JARS 2.0 of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory is presented. This interface will be implemented using the open-source software development toolkit GNU Radio; which besides controlling the JARS 2.0, it will obtain the acquired data for its further processing. The aim of the project, although in its development stage, will be to use the benefits of the GNU Radio to process, plot and even save the data in an standard way.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using JULIA long dataset to find preconditioning evidence of ESF in bottom-type layers
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2008) Pinedo, H.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Hysell, D.
    Recently Hysell et al. [2005] has suggested that the periodic structuring observed in the bottomtype (BT) scattering layers might be used to determine the occurrence or not of full-blown equatorial spread F (ESF) on a given day. The seed or precursor waves may be generated by a collisional shear instability. Preliminary observations at Jicamarca and AL TAIR have shown that such structures present wavelengths of the order of tens or hundreds of kilometers. At Jicamarca periodic structures have been observed using in-beam radar imaging techniques, however such observations are limited to few days in the last five years. On the other hand, routine observations using the JULIA system at Jicamarca have been done since 1996 on approximately 100 days per year on average, using interferometric and dual-beam observations with very narrow beams. Since the bottom-type irregularities drift ata relatively constant speed in the westward direction, using the JULIA narrow beams (~1o), the spatial periodicities might be observed as temporal periodicities in typical range-time intensity maps. In this initial work we present the statistics of the observed bottom-type periodicities and the occurrence of ESF plumes as detected with the JULIA system for years 2006-2008. Besides we presenta time occurrence statistics of a weak bottom-type layer that took place previously to bottom-type layers.
    Palabras clave:RadarAtmospherePlasma
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of topside equatorial spread F spectra estimators using Monte Carlo simulations
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2008) Galindo, F. R.; Kuyeng, K. M.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Hysell, D. L.
    Radar observations typically employ periodic pulses to study any target. This scheme allows a simple processing of the data but the results frequently shows range or frequency aliasing. In order to solve this problem Uppala and Sahr [1] introduced the aperiodic technique (AT) in the radio science community. The AT is based on transmitting pulses at non uniform intervals and allows to study moderately overspread targets. Some equatorial Spread F (ESF) echoes belong to this category, particularly those from the topside. Using this idea Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) has done a couple of experiments to study ESF echoes. Chau et al [2] used the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to compute spectra from those experiments and developed some criteria to remove clutter due to the aperiodic sequence. A second scheme of work was introduced by Hysell et al [3] and this scheme uses a Bayesian method to compute the spectra. Continuing this line of research a Monte Carlo simulations of typical echoes from equatorial ionospheric irregularities as well as ground clutter has been done to evaluate different aperiodic pulsing and inversion techniques to estimate the spectra or its corresponding AutoCorrelation Function (ACF). Our main objective is the estimation of the moderately overspread topside equatorial spread F (ESF) spectra. The optimal spectra estimators combined with radar imaging techniques might represent the unique means to estimate the irregularity power and energy spectral density versus wavenumber from the ground.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Perpendicular and off-perpendicular to B observations of 150-km echoes: evidence of meridional modulation and structure
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Woodman Pollitt, Ronald Francisco; Milla, Marco
    Although discovered more than 40 years ago [Balsley, 1964], there is still no physical mechanism that explains the occurrence of coherent echoes from altitudes around 150 kms (the so called 150-km echoes). East-West oblique beam [Fawcett, 1999] as well as wide beam imaging observations at Jicamarca, indicates that temporal variability of 150-km echoes (the pearls in the necklace) is not due to structuring and/or modulation in the zonal direction. These results point to a meridional modulation [E. Kudeki, personal communication]. Recently Chau [2004] reported the observations of echoes from off-perpendicular to B angles, implying that the aspect sensitivity (i.e., the North-South angular brightness) is not a narrow Gaussian as originally thought…
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using non-spectacular radar meteor echoes to monitor lower thermosphere wind profiles
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Oppenheim, Meers; Sugar, Glenn; Bass, Elizabeth; Slowey, Nick; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Close, Sigrid
    We present a new method of measuring lower thermospheric wind velocity profiles by tracking non‐specular meteor echoes in time. This approach relies on having a radar following plasma irregularities as they are dragged by the neutral wind. This requires a VHF radar with interferometric capability able to point close to perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Using a small sample of data from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory, we calculated wind speeds and directions between 90 and 110\ km with a range resolution of a few hundred meters. The measurements taken show speeds reaching 150m/s and someAmes changing by as much as 100m/s over a 6km altitude range. With some refinement of the data collection and analysis techniques, we expect that one could obtain high resolution images of lower thermospheric winds as they change in both altitude and time. We will discuss these results, the physics underlying these measurements, and the limitations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Studies of equatorial spread-F using LISN VIPIR
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Gopi Krishna, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Doherty, P.; Bullet, T.; Livingston, R.
    LISN, the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, is a distributed observatory. LISN represents a closely coordinated geophysical instrument set, comprised of GPS receivers providing TEC values and scintillation measurements, magnetometers providing daytime ionospheric electric fields and Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) providing ionograms. The LISN Observatory was designed to do continuous measurements using GPS receivers, VIPIR ionosondes and flux gate magnetometers; provide a nowcast of TEC, S4 index, and other derived parameters of the low-latitude ionosphere. The LISN-GPS network of 70 GPS receivers (planned, about 45+ connected now) and 5 VIPIR ionosondes planned in the same field line, will make it possible to address science questions regarding: the effect of E and Es layers on inhibiting ESF, the role of Gravity Waves on seeding plasma bubbles. It will also provide clues to understand the causes of day-to-day variability of the low-latitude ionosphere. The first VIPIR ionosonde has been installed and working temporarily in Jicamarca since October 2008. The VIPIR is able to operate in different modes; we have used high temporal and spatial resolution modes to measure the E and F regions. We carried out a campaign during March 2009 that aimed to measure the effect of gravity waves on the ionospheric densities and to observe the means of gravity waves as a seeding mechanism for spread F. This poster describes the preliminary results on the characteristics of ionospheric density structures, velocities during spread-F conditions from the VIPIR data.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Equatorial zonal electric fields during the 2002-2003 sudden stratospheric warming event
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Olson, Michael E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, C.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Goncharenko, L. P.
    For nearly fifty years, the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.95°S, 76.87°W, 2°N dip latitude) near Lima, Peru, has measured ionospheric plasma drifts. Over the last ten years, measurements of plasma drift velocities have also been measured using radar observations of the equatorial 150 km altitude región (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Madrigal database at Jicamarca: upgrading and unifictaing our databases
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Urco, M.; Rideout, B.
    Several instruments utilized under different operation modes at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) have allowed the study of the equatorial atmosphere and ionosphere for many years. Among others we have: the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR), the Jicamarca Bistatic Radar (JBR), Magnetometer, Ionosonda and JULIA radar. All instruments generate a huge amount of information, either raw or derived data. Each operation mode has its own database and it can be freely accessed through the Internet by their respective link at:; the search options, graphics and visualization are different depending on the experiment. JRO is under a process of data server upgrading, both software and hardware. This includes the unification of existing databases in Jicamarca, improving the search tools, access and visualization. The first stage of this process involves the transfer of Madrigal tools to the server: which has a better performance and greater security, including the addition of new data and experiments to Madrigal. In this work we describe the main features of our new designed database, as well as the improvements and new options added to Madrigal.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The LISN database: description and initial results
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) De la Jara, César; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Espinoza, J. C.; Veliz, Oscar; Valladares, C.; Bullet, T.
    The heavy volume of data that GPS, ionosondes and magnetometers are continuously collecting is stored in the LISN server and managed using a set of rules that are intended to provide an efficiently way to manipulate the large data sets and also implement an adequate method to systematically transform all this information into knowledge. LISN integrates multiple data sources and should provide security, integrity and availability in a multi-user environment. Data from the remote stations arrives to the server continuously and is stored, processed and distributed. This data is easily available and in some cases freely accessible to the community promoting research and encouraging collaboration between users.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ionospheric variations during January 2009 stratospheric sudden warming
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2009) Goncharenko, L.; Coster, A.; Rideout, W.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Liu, H. -L.; Valladares, C. E.
    The stratospheric sudden warming peaking in January 2009 was the strongest and most prolonged on record. We report significant ionospheric variations is association with this event, which are especially pronounced at low latitudes. Large increase in the vertical drifts is observed at Jicamarca, displaying 12-hour signature with upward drifts in the morning hours and downward drifts in the afternoon hours, with pattern persisting for several days. Analysis of GPS TEC data indicates that variations in electron density are observed in a large range of longitudes and latitudes. The entire daytime ionosphere is affected, with morning increase in low-latitude TEC exceeding 100% of the mean value, and afternoon decrease in TEC approaching ~50% of the mean value. These variations are consistent with ionospheric disturbances observed during other stratospheric warming events. We suggest the observed phenomena is related to planetary waves, which have a high amplitude level prior to the stratospheric warmings. Interaction of planetary waves with tides and modulation of tides can lead to changes in the low-latitude electric field through the wind dynamo process, which in turn is responsible for a largescale redistribution of ionospheric electron density.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Diseño de un sistema de adquisición de 08 canales para aplicaciones de estudio atmosférico
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2010) Abad, Rita; Inoñan, Marcos
    El interés por el estudio de la atmósfera ha generado el desarrollo de un sistema de radar cada vez mas sotisficado. Actualmente, los radares operan con un sistema de adquisición basado en receptores digitales, los cuales superan en ventajas a los receptores analógicos, además del ahorro de espacio pues un receptor digital es un circuito integrado DSP. Debido a las características de los receptores digitales se logra diseñar un sistema de adquisición multicanal, el cual por las diferentes opciones a realizar se opta por utilizar dispositivos lógicos programables CPLD’s, los cuales están encargados de la lógica de control del sistema. El sistema tiene un protocolo el cual rige el software, el firmware y hardware, para una comunicación entre el sistema de adquisición y el usuario. Elsistema "Jicamarca Acquisition Radar System" (JARS) transfiere sus datos a una computadora por medio de una tarjeta de Adquisición NIDAQ-6534 de National Instruments, para ello, NI ofrece un conjunto de librerías en lenguaje C para el desarrollo de aplicaciones que la puedan controlar . El programa de adquisición se desarrolló en lenguaje C++ usando el entorno de Visual Studio 2008.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Modos de observación en el espacio cercano con el radar de Jicamarca
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2010) Kuyeng, K.; Castillo, O.; Condori, L.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis
    El Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca (ROJ) es la principal estación ecuatorial de la cadena de radio observatorios de dispersión incoherente (cuyas siglas en inglés es ISR) del hemisferio oeste que se extienden desde Lima - Perú hasta Søndre Strømfjord, Groelandia y la más importante en el mundo para estudiar la ionósfera ecuatorial. Esta compuesto de tres transmisores de 1.5 MW y un arreglo de antenas de 18,432 dipolos, cubriendo un área aproximada de 85,000 m2. El estudio de la ionósfera ecuatorial ha adquirido mayor importancia debido, en gran parte,a las contribuciones hechas por el Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca. El Observatorio se ubica a media hora de viaje en automóvil hacía el este de Lima y a 10 kms de la Carretera Central (latitud 11.95°Sur, longitud 76.87° Oeste).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Development of the new Jicamarca Acquisition Radar System: JARS
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2010) Abad, Rita; Inoñán, M.; Yanque, R.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis
    The need for high-precision radar measurements of the upper atmosphere has motivated the development of new acquisition systems at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO). Digital receivers have replaced the old analog receivers, providing higher dynamic range, faster sampling rates, and more flexibility in configuration. At JRO, off-the-shelf Digitals Receivers (Echotek GC214) are used, but they are not as flexible as we need, so we decided to develop our own digital receiver system. The first prototype we built was a two-channel data acquisition system (REX-2X). The system was finished in 2008 and it has been used to modernize the SOUSY radar at Jicamarca. In 2009, after the experience gained from REX-2X, a new project was started. An eight-channel acquisition system named JARS (Jicamarca Acquisition Radar System) was designed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Observaciones de las inestabilidades KH en la tropósfera, usando un radar de alta resolución
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2010) Villanueva, Fernando; Woodman Pollitt, Ronald Francisco; Castillo, Otto
    El Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca (ROJ), cuenta con el radar SOUSY de alta resolución, el cual fue donado al Instituto Geofísico del Perú, por el Instituto Max Plank, de Alemania a mediados del 2001. La antena del radar, está constituida por un arreglo cuadrado de 65 m de lado, conformada por 256 antenas Yagi, ubicada cerca del cuarto Sur de la antena principal de Jicamarca (figura 1). Su ubicación permitirá realizar experimentos, que requieran, por ejemplo, una línea de base larga Norte-Sur, y que es usada particularmente para estudios de sensibilidad de aspecto de irregularidades en la ionosfera (figura 2). Los resultados que se presentan en el presente poster corresponden a observaciones de la tropósfera, y han sido obtenidos con la antena en posición vertical, utilizando en el transmisor la etapa previa driver, esto equivale a una potencia de 20 Kw, con codificación del pulso del transmisor de 64 baudios, y ancho de código de 250 ns (resolución de 18.75m). La figura 3 nos muestra la respuesta del sistema, transmisor-receptor.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ionospheric effects of recent stratospheric sudden warmings
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2011) Goncharenko, L.; Coster, A.; Chau Chong Shing, Jorge Luis; Valladares, C. E.
    Recent studies have shown large variations in low-latitude ionospheric parameters occurring after stratospheric sudden warming events. We use observations of vertical ion drift from Jicamarca ISR and GPS total electron content data in the Western Hemisphere for winters of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to illustrate main features of ionospheric changes related to stratospheric sudden warmings. The common feature in all events is the increase in the electron density during the morning hours and the decrease in the afternoon, related to amplification of 12-hour signature in low-latitude vertical ion drifts. This feature persists for several days after the peak in stratospheric temperature. The observed phenomena is related to quasistationary planetary waves, which have a high amplitude level prior to the stratospheric warmings. Non-linear interaction of planetary waves with tides leading to increase in tidal amplitudes in the low latitude lower thermosphere and modulation of E-region electric field with subsequent mapping to the F-region is thought to be the primary mechanism responsible for the observed ionospheric response. We investigate the characteristics of ionospheric oscillations with planetary wave periods between 2 and 30 days and in a wide range of latitudes in context of variations in stratospheric parameters.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Procesos de remoción en masa e inundaciones que afectan la seguridad física del distrito de Churuja, provincia Bongará, región Amazonas
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2015) Vivanco López, Socorro del Pilar
    La zona evaluada forma parte del distrito de Churuja, provincia Bongará, región Amazonas, se encuentra en la margen derecha del río Utcubamba, abarca un área de 14 ha aproximadamente; el 67% lo conforma la zona urbana y el 33% corresponden a terrenos de cultivo, el total de habitantes es 244, (Fuente: Municipalidad distrital de Churuja). El objetivo es estudiar los eventos geodinámicos como son: movimientos en masa en la ladera del cerro Tiaranta e inundaciones por el río Utcubamba, que afectan el 70 % de las infraestructuras ubicadas en Churuja.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 50 MHZ measured by the large 50MHZ Jicamarca array
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2013-05) Woodman Pollitt, Ronald Francisco; Villanueva R., Fernando
    Jupiter radiates electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectrum. We are concerned here with the center part, usually referred as the decimetric radiation, a relatively flat part of the spectrum going from about 39.5 MHz merging into the thermal radiation at about 4GHz. The source of this radiation is synchrotron radiation emitted by energetic electrons, trapped in Jupiter's Van Allen radiation belt, gyrating around its magnetic field. The flux density of this radiation has been measured at many frequencies, the lowest being at around 80 MHZ.
  • ItemOpen Access
    LISN network: tools for GPS data processing and managing
    (Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 2013) Espinoza, Juan C.; Valladares, Cesar
    The LISN network includes several GPS receivers installed around South America as a distributed observatory with the purpose of study the ionospheric phenomena. All of these receivers send data every 15 minutes to a central server located at Lima – Peru.